Quadrants and Regions of Abdomen | turkcerrahi.com/en (2024)

CONTENTS
  • What are the abdominal quadrants and how are they divided?
  • Meanings of Some Prefix and Suffixes Used in Abdominal Regions
  • Dividing the Abdomen into Four Quadrants
  • Dividing the Abdomen into Nine Regions
    • 9-region
  • What Organs are Found in the Abdominal Regions?
  • Causes of Abdominal Pain by Quadrants and Regions
    • Causes of Diffuse (Common) Abdominal Pain
    • Causes of Right Upper Quadrant Pain
    • Causes of Right Lower Quadrant Pain
    • Causes of Left Upper Quadrant Pain
    • Causes of Left Lower Quadrant Pain
    • Causes of Epigastric Pain
    • Causes of Suprapubic-Hypogastric Pain

What are the abdominal quadrants and how are they divided?

In the daily practice of medicine, the abdominal regions are divided into 4 quadrants, or 9 regions. This division facilitates agreement among health professionals. More importantly, the quadrant or region where the pain is the worst is usually related to the organs in that quadrant or region. For example, a young man with right lower quadrant pain suggests appendicitis. A middle-aged, thin patient with epigastric abdominal pain suggests a peptic ulcer. Gallstones typically cause right upper quadrant pain (e.g., acute cholecystitis, biliary colic). Diverticulitis comes to mind first in left lower quadrant pain in elderly patients.

Meanings of Some Prefix and Suffixes Used in Abdominal Regions

In the nomenclature of the abdominal regions, "hypo-" refers to the below, "epi-" to the above, "-chond" to the cartilage of the rib, and "-gast-" to the stomach.

Dividing the Abdomen into Four Quadrants

The vertical plane passing through the midline of the body is called the median plane, which divides the body into right and left halves (planum medianum). The horizontal plane passing through the umbilicus is called the transumbilical plane. These two planes divide the abdomen into four quadrants.

  • Right upper quadrant
  • Right lower quadrant
  • Left upper quadrant
  • Left lower quadrant

Dividing the Abdomen into Nine Regions

Two horizontal planes and two vertical lines divide the abdomen into nine quadrants.

  • Subcostal plane
  • Intertubercular plane (in Gray’s drawings) or interspinous plane (in Netter’s drawings)
  • Midclavicular lines

The subcostal plane is at the level of the lower border of the 10th rib anteriorly and the L3 vertebral body posteriorly (planum subcostale).

The intertubercular plane is at the level of the iliac tubercle anteriorly and the body of the L5 vertebra posteriorly (transtubercular plane, planum transtuberculare).

The interspinous plane is at the level of the anterior superior iliac spines (ASIS) anteriorly and the lower edge of the L5 vertebra posteriorly (planum interspinale).

Midclavicular lines (vertical lines) traverse the midpoint between the anterior superior iliac spines (ASIS) and the pubic symphysis inferiorly.

The planum transpyloricum runs anteriorly, halfway between the suprasternal notch and the symphysis pubis (or halfway between the xiphoid process and the umbilicus), and posteriorly, along the L1 vertebral body. The transpyloric plane passes through the pylorus, the body of the gallbladder, and the origin of the superior mesenteric artery. This plane is a few centimeters below the costal margin (arch).

9 Region

  • Epigastric Region (Regio Epigastrica)
  • Left Hypochondrium (Regio Hypochondriaca Sinistra)
  • Right Hypochondrium (Regio Hypochondriaca Dextra)
  • Umbilical Region (Regio Umbilicalis)
  • Right Flank (Regio Lumbalis Dextra)
  • Left Flank (Regio Lumbalis Sinistra)
  • Hypogastric (Pubic) Region (Regio Hypogastrica)
  • Right Groin (Right Inguinal or Iliac Region, Regio Inguinalis Dextra)
  • Left Groin (Left Inguinal or Iliac Region, Regio Inguinalis Sinistra)

In daily medical practice, surgeons use more than four quadrants; they also talk about the epigastric, umbilical, and suprapubic regions.

What Organs are Found in the Abdominal Regions?

What Organs Are Located in the Abdominal Quadrants?

Right Upper Quadrant Organs

  • Liver
  • Gallbladder and bile ducts
  • Antrum and pylorus
  • Duodenum
  • Head of the pancreas
  • Right kidney and adrenal gland

Left Upper Quadrant Organs

  • Largest part of the stomach
  • Spleen
  • Left lobe of the liver
  • Body and tail of the pancreas
  • Left kidney and adrenal gland

Right Lower Quadrant Organs

  • Cecum
  • Appendix
  • Ascending colon
  • Right ovary and fallopian tube
  • Right ureter

Left Lower Quadrant Organs

  • Descending colon
  • Sigmoid colon
  • Left ovary and fallopian tube
  • Left ureter

Causes of Abdominal Pain by Quadrants and Regions

Causes of Diffuse (Common) Abdominal Pain

  • Peritonitis
  • Pancreatitis
  • Leukemia
  • Sickle cell crisis
  • Early appendicitis
  • Mesenteric lymphadenitis
  • Mesenteric ischemia
  • Gastroenteritis
  • Abdominal aortic aneurysm
  • Ulcerative colitis
  • Intestinal obstruction

Causes of Right Upper Quadrant Pain

  • Gallbladder and bile ducts
  • Biliary colic (gallstone colic, gallbladder attack due to stones)
  • Acute cholecystitis
  • Cholangitis
  • Hemobilia, etc
  • Hepatitis
  • Liver abscess
  • Hepatomegaly due to heart failure
  • Peptic ulcer
  • Pancreatitis
  • Retrocecal appendicitis
  • Right kidney pain
  • Shingles (herpes zoster)
  • Myocardial ischemia
  • Lower lobe pneumonia
  • Pulmonary empyema

Causes of Right Lower Quadrant Pain

  • Appendicitis
  • Intestinal obstruction
  • Crohn's disease
  • Diverticulitis
  • Cholecystitis
  • Perforated peptic ulcer
  • Rectus hematoma
  • Ectopic pregnancy
  • Ovarian cyst or torsion
  • Salpingitis
  • Mittelschmerz
  • Endometriosis
  • Ureteral stone
  • Kidney pain
  • Seminal vesiculitis
  • Psoas abscess
  • Inguinal hernia

Causes of Left Upper Quadrant Pain

  • Gastritis
  • Pancreatitis
  • Spleen (splenomegaly, rupture, infarction)
  • Kidney pain
  • Shingles (herpes zoster)
  • Myocardial ischemia
  • Lower lobe pneumonia
  • Empyema

Causes of Left Lower Quadrant Pain

  • Diverticulitis
  • Intestinal obstruction
  • Rectus hematoma
  • Ectopic pregnancy
  • Ovarian cyst or torsion
  • Salpingitis
  • Mittelschmerz
  • Endometriosis
  • Ureteral stone
  • Kidney pain
  • Seminal vesiculitis
  • Psoas abscess
  • Inguinal hernia

Causes of Epigastric Pain

  • Stomach-duodenum ulcer
  • Gastroesophageal reflux pain
  • Pancreatitis
  • Gallbladder and biliary tract
  • Epigastric hernia

Causes of Suprapubic-Hypogastric Pain

  • Urinary tract infection
  • Appendicitis
  • Diverticulitis
  • Inflammatory bowel diseases
  • Gynecological (pelvic) diseases

< Anatomy of the Abdominal Wall

Anatomy of the Inguinal Region >

Quadrants and Regions of Abdomen | turkcerrahi.com/en (2024)

FAQs

What are the 4 quadrants of abdomen pain? ›

Quadrant 1 is the upper right part below the bottom of the ribs and above the navel. Quadrant 2 is the upper left area, below the bottom of the ribs. Quadrant 3 is the lower left part of the abdomen. Quadrant 4 refers to pain in the lower right abdomen.

What is the mnemonic for the 9 quadrants of the abdomen? ›

Tip to remember the 9 regions of the abdomen

To remember the nine abdominal regions, use the simple mnemonic: “Hector Loves Isabel Every Unceasing Hour.” This stands for the regions in order from top to bottom: hypochondriac, lumbar, iliac, epigastric, umbilical, and hypogastric.

What are the 9 regions of the abdomen and organs? ›

The upper abdomen contains the (1) right hypochondriac, (2) epigastric, and (3) left hypochondriac regions. The middle abdomen contains the (4) right lumbar, (5) umbilical region, and (6) left lumbar regions. The lower abdomen contains the (7) right iliac, (8) hypogastric, and (9) left iliac regions.

What are the 5 F's of abdominal pain? ›

Healthcare providers diagnose a distended abdomen in terms of the “five 'f's”: flatus (gas), fetus (pregnancy), feces (trapped poop), fluid (from several causes) or fat. A distended abdomen may be very uncomfortable, or it may simply be a symptom that you and your healthcare provider observe visually.

What quadrant is pancreatitis? ›

The main symptom of pancreatitis is pain felt in the upper left side or middle of the abdomen. The pain: May be worse within minutes after eating or drinking at first, more commonly if foods have a high fat content. Becomes constant and more severe, lasting for several days.

What does left upper quadrant pain mean? ›

A swollen spleen may be the cause of upper left abdominal pain. Infections and liver disease are common causes. If you've been injured near your spleen, beware that it may rupture and bleed. A ruptured spleen can cause dangerous internal bleeding and is a life-threatening medical emergency.

What are the 9 quadrants of the abdomen with diseases? ›

Abdominal Nine Divisions
  • Right Hypochondriac. The right hypochondriac region contains the right portion of the liver, the gallbladder, the right kidney, and parts of the small intestine.
  • Left Hypochondriac. ...
  • Epigastric. ...
  • Right Lumbar. ...
  • Left Lumbar. ...
  • Umbilical. ...
  • Right Iliac. ...
  • Left Iliac.
Jan 17, 2023

What organs are in the lower left quadrant? ›

Upper Left Abdomen: This area encompasses the stomach, pancreas, spleen, the left lobe of the liver, and the left side of the colon. Lower Left Abdomen: In the lower left abdomen, one can find the left ovary (in females), the ureter, the uterus (in females), and the small and large intestines.

What organ is to the right of your belly button? ›

Organs found in the right lower quadrant include the appendix, the upper portion of the colon, and the right ovary and the Fallopian tube in women. The right lower quadrant may be assessed when diagnosing appendicitis, in which case, this quadrant would be tender and painful.

Which organ is located in all four quadrants of the abdomen? ›

Which organ is located in all four quadrants of the abdomen? -the small intestine extends from the pyloric valve of the stomach to the ileocecal valve, where it joins the colon. thus the small intestine is located in ALL four quadrants.

What is the acronym for the quadrants of the abdomen? ›

The abdomen can also be divided into four quadrants, known as the right upper, the left upper, the right lower, and the left lower quadrants. It is common to see these quadrants abbreviated as RUQ, LUQ, RLQ, and LLQ, respectively.

What are the four quadrants strategy? ›

Quadrant 1: Urgent and important. Quadrant 2: Not urgent yet important. Quadrant 3: Urgent but not important. Quadrant 4: Not urgent and not important.

What quadrant do you listen to bowel sounds? ›

Normally, bowel sounds are present in all four quadrants. This means that peristalsis is occurring and contents are moving through the intestines.

What are the four types of abdominal pain? ›

The doctors and the medical professionals at Riverside ER, a 24-hour emergency care center located near you in New Braunfels, Texas, want to educate the public on the symptoms of abdominal pain and the relevant treatment. There are four types of abdominal pain: upper, lower, right-sided and left-sided.

When should I go to the ER for right upper quadrant pain? ›

If the pain is severe and unrelenting, your abdomen is tender to the touch or the pain radiates to your back, you should immediately visit the closest emergency department. If the pain is accompanied by any of the following symptoms, you should also seek emergency care: Fever. Vomiting blood.

How do you describe abdominal pain location? ›

Key facts. Abdominal pain is felt anywhere in the area between the bottom of your ribs and your pelvis. Pain in your abdomen (tummy) may be aching, stabbing, burning, twisting, cramping or dull. There are many causes of abdominal pain.

What causes quadrant pain? ›

Less serious causes of abdominal pain include constipation, irritable bowel syndrome, food allergies, lactose intolerance, food poisoning, and a stomach virus. Other, more serious, causes include appendicitis, an abdominal aortic aneurysm, a bowel blockage, cancer, and gastroesophageal reflux.

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